FUNDAMENTAL ORGANS AND SYSTEMS
FUNDAMENTAL ORGANS AND SYSTEMS IN THE HUMAN ORGANISM
Dr. Michael Clarjen-Arconada
USA +1 305 926 9679
SPAIN +34 636 434 443
The liver is a vital organ with a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. This organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the organism, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. The liver constitutes an advanced laboratory within the organism. It lies below the diaphragm in the thoracic region of the abdomen. Among many generated substances it produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion, via the emulsification of lipids. The liver's highly specialized tissues regulate a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions. Liver functions affect every organ and system throughout the organism in significant complex interactions throughout the ongoing maintenance of internal equilibrium (homeostasis).
The kidneys are paired organs with several functions. They are an essential part of the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, and erythropoietin.
The kidney participates in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. The kidney accomplishes these homeostatic functions both independently and in concert with other organs, particularly those of the endocrine system. Various endocrine hormones coordinate these endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide, among others.
Many of the kidney's functions are accomplished by relatively simple mechanisms of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, which take place in the nephron. Filtration, which takes place at the renal corpuscle, is the process by which cells and large proteins are filtered from the blood to make an ultrafiltrate that will eventually become urine. The kidney generates 180 liters of filtrate a day, while reabsorbing a large percentage, allowing for only the generation of approximately 2 liters of urine. Reabsorption is the transport of molecules from this ultrafiltrate and into the blood. Secretion is the reverse process, in which molecules are transported in the opposite direction, from the blood into the urine.
Gastrointestinal System (GI). The major processes occurring in the GI System are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation. The function and coordination of each of these actions is vital in maintaining GI health, and thus the digestion of nutrients for the entire organism. The entire alimentary canal form oral cavity to anus is described as follows: mouth – tongue – salivary glands – esophagus – stomach – liver/gall bladder – pancreas – small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) – large intestine (ascending colon – transverse colon – descending colon – rectum).
Every day, seven liters of fluid are secreted by the digestive system. This fluid is composed of four primary components: ions, digestive enzymes, mucus, and bile. About half of these fluids are secreted by the salivary glands, pancreas, and liver, which compose the accessory organs and glands of the digestive system. The rest of the fluid is secreted by the GI epithelial cells.
A significant function of the GI tract is that of digestive enzymes that are secreted in the mouth (salivary amilase), stomach and intestines. Some of these enzymes are generated by accessory digestive organs [liver – pancreas (pancreatic amylase, trypsin)], while others are secreted by the epithelial cells of the stomach and intestine. While some of these enzymes remain embedded in the wall of the GI tract, others are secreted in an inactive proenzyme form.When these proenzymes reach the lumen of the tract, a factor specific to a particular proenzyme will activate it. A prime example of this is pepsin, which is secreted in the stomach by chief cells. Pepsin in its secreted form is inactive (pepsinogen). However, once it reaches the gastric lumen it becomes activated into pepsin by the high H+ concentration, becoming a enzyme vital to digestion. The release of the enzymes is regulated by neural, hormonal, or paracrine signals. However, in general, parasympathetic stimulation increases secretion of all digestive enzymes.
Digested food is able to pass into the blood vessels in the wall of the intestine through the process of diffusion. The small intestine is the site where most of the nutrients from ingested food are absorbed. The inner wall, or mucosa, of the small intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelial tissue. Structurally, the mucosa is covered in wrinkles or folds called plicae circulares, which are considered permanent features in the wall of the organ. They are distinct from rugae which are considered non-permanent or temporary allowing for distention and contraction. From the plicae circulares project microscopic finger-like pieces of tissue called villi (Latin for "shaggy hair"). The individual epithelial cells also have finger-like projections known as microvilli. The function of the plicae circulares, the villi and the microvilli is to increase the amount of surface area available for the absorption of nutrients.
Each villus has a network of capillaries and fine lymphatic vessels called lacteals close to its surface. The epithelial cells of the villi transport nutrients from the lumen of the intestine into these capillaries (amino acids and carbohydrates) and lacteals (lipids). The absorbed substances are transported via the blood vessels to different organs of the body where they are used to build complex substances (mainly through liver functions) such as the proteins required by our organism. This is called diffusion. The food that remains undigested and unabsorbed passes into the large intestine.
The progressive accumulation of toxic elements in the human organism is reflected in part by the formation of encrusted materials on the walls of the intestines. These rubber-leather like materials of dark brown-grayish color impede the proper function of the intestines including the proper absorption-assimilation of nutrients, and generate a progressive toxification of circulatory-lymphatic systems along with interstitial / inter-cellular fluids (extra-cellular fluids). The natural removal of these rubber-leather materials through a GI-Regeneration Protocol (through self-regulated enemas and colonics) is an important factor in the equation of health. At the same time a carefully designed medicinal way of eating should be implemented to help discharge additional toxins and provide optimal nutrients for the organism, thus preventing the future formation of such pathological foci.
The progressive toxic contamination prevalent in modern human species is accompanied by increased parasitism. Parasites of all types (multi-cellular organisms, bacteria, viri) migrate and expand (tropism) in stages towards toxic sites (accumulations) in the organism, giving rise to multiple disorders and health problems. Among other pollution sources; water - toxic food and parasites are ingested on a regular basis, creating an optimal medium for their expansion. High levels of toxic metabolic waste are additionally accrued, increasing the overall toxicity and acidic medium where parasites thrive. The combination of a unique profile toxic elements and accompanying parasites constitute the basic etiological factors in all illnesses, including the formation of tumor nuclei and metastasis in cancer problems. Therefore, the design and implementation of non-invasive / nontoxic protocols (natural health methods) of Natural Biological Medicine in order to discharge progressively such toxic elements – parasites, constitute the primordial regeneration cycle in solving the equation of disease.
The Primordial Regeneration Cycle (PRC) [1 month] is formed by the following sequence: Parasite Removal Protocol (PRP) [7 days intensive] + Kidney-Liver Regeneration Protocol (K-LRP) [kidneys 21 days + Liver 2 days intensive]. The PRC continues ongoing month after month until the health problem is completely regenerated. Other Natural Biological Medicine interventions can be superimposed according to the characteristics and particular needs of each person. The PRC is based on a medicinal way of eating in order to obtain best results regenerating from illness and developing optimal levels of health. The assault of toxic elements in modern societies is so pervasive that it is recommended 2 PRC a year for optimal maintenance of health: 1 PRC in the Spring (around April - May) and another PRC in the Fall-Winter (around October – November).
The Immune System is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and neutralizing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly. Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations that avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.
To survive this challenge, multiple mechanisms evolved that recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess enzyme systems that protect against viral infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and insects. These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms. The typical vertebrate immune system consists of many types of proteins, cells, organs, and tissues that interact in an elaborate and dynamic network. As part of this more complex immune response, the human immune system adapts over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. This adaptation process is referred to as "adaptive immunity" or "acquired immunity" and creates immunological memory. Immunological memory created from a primary response to a specific pathogen, provides an enhanced response to secondary encounters with that same, specific pathogen.
The essential function of the immune system is to differentiate self from non-self and act accordingly in an optimal way to neutralize and remove non-self factors in the organism. The complexity of coordinated action by the immune system shows harmonious team work at its best. However, the collective ignorance of the modern human species in managing the natural resources available on planet earth has generated pervasive pollution of toxic elements. The degree of toxicity is such that we can now identify toxic metals, PCBs, benzene, synthetic dyes, malonic acid, fungus spores and mycotoxins, even wheel-bearing grease and motor oil in the liver and kidneys. Furthermore, they can be identified in our white blood cells in their attempt to remove them. But after a certain level of intoxication they are parallized unable to perform their functions. They become south polarized , their membranes partially dissolved and coated (overwhelmed) with too much ferrite iron or nickel and other heavy metals that are south polarized. A number of Immune Regeneration Protocols (IRPs) can be designed and implemented along Natural Biological Medicine Principles. But first, emphasis should be placed on removing the sources of immunity inhibitors, many of them coming through drinking chlorox bleach water and their spraying in foods, toxic food additives, along with manufacturing process, equipment sources, industrial disinfectants and food conveyor belts, among other sources.
The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.
This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system as composed of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which distributes lymph. Two types of fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. The blood, heart, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system collectively make up the circulatory system.
The lymphatic system in animals is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin lympha "water". It also includes the lymphoid tissue and lymphatic vessels through which the lymph travels in a one-way system in which lymph flows only toward the heart. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs, particularly the lymph nodes, and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes, which includes the spleen, thymus, bone marrow and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system.
The blood does not directly come in contact with the parenchymal cells and tissues in the body, but constituents of the blood first exit the microvascular exchange blood vessels to become interstitial fluid, which comes into contact with the parenchymal cells of the body. Lymph is the fluid that is formed when interstitial fluid enters the initial lymphatic vessels of the lymphatic system. The lymph is then moved along the lymphatic vessel network by either intrinsic contractions of the lymphatic vessels or by extrinsic compression of the lymphatic vessels via external tissue forces (e.g. the contractions of skeletal muscles).
The Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Oxygen deprived blood from the vena cava enters the right atrium of the heart and flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, from which it is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary arteries which go to the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the now oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it enters the left atrium before flowing through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Then, oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle is pumped out via the aorta, and on to the rest of the body.
The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the human heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary circulation there are four chambers in total: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle. The right atrium is the upper chamber of the right side of the heart. The blood that is returned to the right atrium is deoxygenated (poor in oxygen) and passed into the right ventricle to be pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for re-oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. The left atrium receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs as well as the pulmonary vein which is passed into the strong left ventricle to be pumped through the aorta to the different organs of the organism.
ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTION OF LIVER FUNCTIONS
The liver plays the major role in producing proteins that are secreted into the blood, including major plasma proteins, factors in hemostasis and fibrinolysis, carrier proteins, hormones, prohormones and apolipoproteins (apolipoproteins are proteins that bind to lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins, which transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems):
A large part of amino acid synthesis
Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds. The substrates for these processes are various compounds in the organism's diet or growth media. Not all organisms are able to synthesise all amino acids, for example humans are only able to synthesise 12 of the 20 standard amino acids.
The liver performs several roles in carbohydrate metabolism:
Glycogenesis (the formation of glycogen from glucose)(muscle tissues can also do this)
The liver is responsible for the mainstay of protein metabolism, synthesis as well as degradation
The liver also performs several roles in lipid metabolism:
The liver breaks down or modifies toxic substances (e.g., methylation) and most medicinal products in a process called drug metabolism. This sometimes results in toxication, when the metabolite is more toxic than its precursor. Preferably, the toxins are conjugated to avail excretion in bile or urine.
The liver stores a multitude of substances, including glucose (in the form of glycogen), vitamin A (1–2 years' supply), vitamin D (1–4 months' supply), vitamin B12 (1-3 years' supply), iron, and copper.
The liver is responsible for immunological effects- the reticuloendothelial system of the liver contains many immunologically active cells, acting as a 'sieve' for antigens carried to it via the portal system.
Dr Michael Clarjen-Arconada practices Natural Biological Medicine, with over 30 years of experience helping patients to regenerate from illness and develop optimal levels of heath and fitness. For further information please contact:
Dr. Michael Clarjen-Arconada
USA +1 305 926 9679
SPAIN +34 636 434 443
Consultations can be held through Tel. and/or via FaceTime / WhatsApp / Facebook / Skype or similar platforms
+1 305 926 9679